Radionuclide Laboratory | Radiation Safety | Radiological Consultants
IAF is an accredited radionuclide laboratory and provides advice in all areas of radioactivity and radiation protection
As an accredited testing laboratory, we have been measuring radioactivity since 1993. We determine natural and artificial radionuclides in almost all sample matrices and measure radon in soil, water, drinking water, food, radioactive waste and indoor air. We take samples and carry out in-situ measurements, interpret the results and, as independent consultants, help our clients with their radiation safety permitting, development of radiation safety measures and radon protection at workplaces, in dwellings - mostly in radon-affected areas. For the carbon emission trade and the control of bio-based products, we measure the biogenic carbon content (C-14 method). We assist nuclear decommissioning projects by determining nuclide vectors, including a wide range of difficult-to-measure nuclides (DTM nuclides) and routine radionuclide analyses.
Radiological site characterisation, radio-ecology, assessment of orphan sources and radiological construction supervision of environmental remediation measures and monitoring are all part of our range of professional services. We also support our customers with public communication and awareness campaigns in the field of radioactivity and radon.
Our flexible sample logistics allow us to accept and analyse samples at almost any time of the day, night and during weekends. Due to our extensive equipment park, flexible order processing and short turnaround times we can handle even very large numbers of samples.
We are always there for you, your samples and your questions. In case of further questions, please contact us at any time.
Below we provide brief answers to the most frequently asked questions on the measurement of radioactivity. Our two-page capability statement can be downloaded here.
In which sample matrices can IAF determine radionuclides?
IAF can determine radioactivity in practically all sample matrices. Here is a selection of matrices that we frequently analyse:
- Foodstuff, drinking and mineral water, beverages.
- Groundwater (e.g., age determination by tritium analysis), wastewater, rainwater and surface water.
- Soil and mineral samples, ores, concentrates, tailings.
- Metals and alloys, metal products.
- Sludge, scale, filters, produced water and other samples from geothermal energy and oil/gas production (natural radionuclides, NORM).
- Brine and highly saline waters.
- Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
- Mineral, animal and vegetable oils, oily liquids, agricultural, vegetable and animal products, vegetation samples and animal feed.
- Secondary fuels, sewage gas, waste gas and bioproducts (e.g., determination of biogenic carbon using C-14).
- Building materials and demolition rubble (analysis of soil and rubble samples from radiological contaminated sites and nuclear decommissioning).
- Air, aerosols and gases, e.g., for measuring radon / radon progeny, thoron, krypton, tritium and other radioactive gases, air filters.
- Scratch and wipe samples from nuclear decommissioning.
- Dust samples and dust deposition (Bergerhoff jars) in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, and NORM-affected industrial facilities.
- Urine, faeces, other bio-samples.
- Waste containers (barrels, drums), especially for in-situ gamma spectrometry.
This list is not exhaustive. Please ask us for further materials that IAF can analyse.
Which methods and equipment do IAF use in their radionuclide laboratory?
We measure radioactivity using gamma spectrometry (HPGe n-type), alpha spectrometry (PIPS detectors), liquid scintillation (LSC), low-level alpha / beta counters and grid ionization chambers.
For sample preparation, we have an extensively equipped radiochemical laboratory as well as the appropriate mechanical and physical sample pre-treatment, such as jar crushers, ball mills, tube furnaces and microwaves.
For the determination of tritium with a low detection limit, IAF operates a high-performance electrolytic enrichment system, developed from scratch, and perfected, in-house.
What are the "Characteristic Limits" in ISO 11929 all about?
Diese charakteristischen Grenzen werden nach den Berechnungsvorschriften der DIN EN ISO 11929 ermittelt und bei Erfordernis gemeinsam mit der Unsicherheit des Messergebnisses im Prüfbericht angegeben.
The so-called characteristic limits in nuclear measurements according to DIN EN ISO 11929 are (1) the decision threshold, (2) the detection limit and (3) the limits of the confidence interval. They provide information about
- whether a sample contributes to the measured count rate of the detector,
- what the minimum count rate caused by a sample must be so that it can still be reliably detected with the measurement method used, and
- in which range the actual value of a measured quantity falls, provided this is caused by the contribution of the samples to the count rate.
These characteristic limits are calculated according to the method of ISO 11929 and, if required, are specified in the test report together with the relative uncertainty of result.
What are difficult-to-determine (DTM) nuclides and which of them can IAF determine?
Nuclides that cannot be measured by gamma spectrometry and that have to be radio-chemically separated prior to the actual counting step, are often referred to as "difficult-to-measure nuclides", or DTM nuclides. More specifically, DTM nuclides require a particularly complex radiochemical preparation and, if necessary, the adaptation of methods, which at IAF can be done within the scope of our flexible accreditation. DTM nuclides are usually alpha or beta emitters and are therefore determined using alpha spectrometry, low-level alpha / beta counting or LSC. A list of the routine DTM nuclides can be found under Radionuclide Laboratory Services.
Often the relevant DTM nuclides are determined once in a certain sample matrix and correlated with nuclides that are easy to measure (e.g., gamma-spectrometrically). The nuclide vector determined in this way can then be used to examine a large batches of samples inexpensively and quickly using gamma spectrometry. This helps to aid a decision process on the free-release of the entire batch with sufficient statistical certainty, which is very useful in situations where bulk quantities of waste are handled, for example in the nuclear decommissioning.
Which radioactivity measurements does IAF carry out on building materials?
IAF determines the activity index of building materials (and in raw materials and aggregates if required by the client) according to Annex VIII of the EU Basic Safety Standards (Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom), Annex 17 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (2018), according to DIN CEN/TS 17216, DIN SPEC 18208 or other national and international standards.
We measure the radon diffusion coefficient of materials (foils, liners, sealants, tube sleeves etc.) and test them for radon tightness (two-chamber method, DIN EN 11665-13). We also determine the radon exhalation rate (Becquerels per square metre and second) from building materials.
What’s the maximum activity of samples that we can handle?
Under our radiation safety licence, the accredited radionuclide laboratory is allowed to handle unsealed radioactive substances of up to 1E2 times the exemption limit in accordance with the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. By taking advantage of the infrastructure of a university laboratory, we can push the activity limit of the samples to 1E7 times the exemption limit. Aliquots are prepared there, and the smaller samples are processed at IAF.
What licences and certificates does IAF hold?
- IAF holds a flexible accreditation according to DIN ISO/EN 17025:2018. You can find our certificate under Downloads.
- With the accreditation, the requirements of the quality management system according to DIN ISO/EN 9001 are met by default.
- IAF is an expert organization appointed by the Saxon State Ministry for Environment and Agriculture for the assessment of workplaces with exposure to naturally occurring radioactivity (“NORM workplaces”). Dr. Christian Kunze and Dipl.-Ing. (BA) René Baumert are the officially approved experts.
- IAF is an expert organisation appointed by the Saxon State Ministry for Social Affairs and Consumer Protection and registered in the official list of approved laboratories for drinking water testing according to the German Drinking Water Ordinance.
- IAF has been appointed by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) to measure radon at workplaces. Dipl.-Ing. (BA) René Baumert is an officially certified radon expert.
- IAF holds a licence for outside workers under Article 25 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance and has the requisite provisions in place (medical check-ups, radiation workers of category A with radiation passport, security clearance for nuclear installations).
- You can find more about our permits and certificates under Accreditation/Certificates.
What does "flexible accreditation" mean?
Part of IAF’s accredited scope is flexible in categories 1, 2, and 3, which allows us to include test methods after internal validation within clearly defined limits in the accredited methods, and apply them without having to formally make a request to the accreditation body for an extension to its scope of accreditation. This enables our accredited radionuclide laboratory to respond quickly and flexibly to new requirements of our customers.
Why are natural radionuclides often more difficult to determine by gamma spectrometry than artificial nuclides?
There are multiple reasons for this:
- In gamma spectrometry, we measure the gamma radiation emitted by a sample and assign the energies of the various peaks to the radionuclides we are looking for. In contrast to most artificial radionuclides, many natural radionuclides emit radiation with a greater number of different energies, and consequently a larger number of peaks needs to be evaluated to arrive at correct results.
- Natural radionuclides are often part of a rather long chain of "mother-daughter" pairs of nuclides. “Mother” and “daughter” nuclides may or may not be in radioactive equilibrium with each other, depending on the nature, origin and age of the sample. Some long-lived natural parent nuclides can only be determined by gamma spectrometry based on their short-lived daughters (e.g., uranium-238 is determined using its daughter thorium-234). In addition, some nuclides (e.g., radium-224 in aqueous samples) require multiple, time-delayed measurements before and after equilibrium is reached. All of this must be taken into account when evaluating the spectra and requires a great deal of experience.
- Another reason is the superposition of the radiation energies of several nuclides. For example, the energies of the gamma radiation of radium-226 and uranium-235 are very close to 186 keV. The resulting overlap of peaks must be taken into account in evaluating the spectra.
- After all, some nuclides emit measurable radiation at rather low energies (for example, the gamma energy of the natural nuclide lead-210 with 46 keV is much lower than the radiation of the artificial nuclide cesium-137 with 662 keV). Therefore, on the one hand, only special low-energy gamma spectrometers can be used; on the other hand, the radiation may be strongly absorbed in the sample so that a complex correction procedure is necessary. This, too, requires a lot of experience.
Does IAF also offer conventional chemical analysis?
If, in addition to radiometric parameters, conventional components need to be determined (e.g., mercury in scale samples from the oil / natural gas industry, waste declaration analyses according to LAGA or landfill ordinance, heavy metals, carbon content, calorific value and other parameters), we work closely with laboratories that are accredited for the analysis of these substances under ISO 17025.
How does the efficient clearance measurement of scrap and other contaminated materials work?
For clearance measurements of large amounts of scrap and other contaminated materials, a large number of spot measurements would usually be very time-consuming, without actually substantially adding information. Therefore, IAF and Wismut GmbH have developed a highly efficient method for clearance of large amounts of scrap, which is a sophisticated combination of statistically optimized field measurements with backup laboratory tests of individual samples for quality assurance. A particular advantage is that it avoids the errors that inevitably arise when using gamma-sensitive devices, which cannot detect contamination by Pb-210 and Po-210.
With this method more than 70 % of the scrap generated during the decommissioning and environmental rehabilitation of Wismut’s East German uranium legacy sites were sorted and cleared from regulatory control in minimum time, fully accepted by the regulatory authorities. It is now being used in decommissioning and environmental rehabilitation projects in Germany and many other countries.
What on-site services does IAF provide?
We investigate soil, waste storage facilities, buildings and workplaces using calibrated devices for measuring the local dose rate, equipped with GPS for geo-referencing. Drums and containers with radioactive waste from nuclear dismantling or residues from the NORM industry are conveniently characterised in-situ using our mobile HPGe (n-type) gamma spectrometers.
IAF offers clearance measurements of materials with radioactive surface contamination (e.g., testing gross alpha and beta activity on surfaces of scrap, claddings, trucks or containers). Bespoke, officially approved statistical methods are used in order to achieve high statistical confidence with a relatively small number of measurements.
We also provide mobile LSC (liquid scintillation) measuring stations with qualified personnel, e.g., for quick analytical checking of wipe samples during time critical nuclear decommissioning activities.
We offer radiological construction supervision, for example during environmental remediation works of radioactive legacy sites. Our site personnel are trained and experienced in accordance with relevant sampling procedures (e.g., LAGA PN 98), and worker health & safety precautions.
As an officially appointed organisation for radon measurements, we deliver and place passive radon detectors (solid-state nuclear track detectors) to check whether the radon reference level of 300 Bq/m³ over 12 months is complied with at workplaces and in dwellings.
Short-term radon measurements with mobile radon monitors rapidly provide information on entry pathways of radon, and its propagation within a building, in a matter of days. Our range of services also includes “blower door tests” according to DIN EN 13829.
Of course, in addition to "conventional" radon measurements (Rn-222), if required, we can also measure the short-lived radionuclide thoron (Rn-220) in the context of the Th-232 decay series.
We operate radon, tritium and krypton monitors for measurements of radioactivity in air and gases, e.g., in nuclear waste repositories.
We are accredited for the sampling of drinking water, so that we can accept full-service testing assignments according to Art. 14 (6) of the German Drinking Water Ordinance.
In addition, trained IAF personnel hold certificates under ADR Class 7, so that we can transport sample material and other radioactive materials by ourselves on public roads.
What are radionuclides, what is radioactivity and how can we measure radioactivity?
Radionuclides are special forms of a chemical element whose atomic nucleus is unstable and therefore decays spontaneously. For example, most naturally occurring carbon atoms have 6 protons and 6 neutrons (nuclear mass 12 units, i.e., "C-12") - these are stable. However, there are also carbon atoms with nuclei consisting of 6 protons and 8 neutrons, i.e., they have a nuclear mass of 14 units (hence "C-14"). This nucleus is unstable and will decay sooner or later.
With each decay, a characteristic radiation is emitted depending on the nucleus: for example, 2 neutrons and 2 protons ("alpha radiation") or electrons/positrons ("beta radiation"). Almost all decays also produce, to varying degree, electromagnetic radiation ("gamma radiation").
The property of unstable nuclei to spontaneously decay is called “radioactivity”. It is given in Becquerel (Bq): 1 Bq corresponds to one decay per second. One can measure radioactivity, and IAF specializes in measuring radioactivity.
The alpha, beta and gamma radiation that is emitted when nuclei decay is able to ionize other substances (e.g., air or semiconductors), which leads to an electric impulse. Many methods of measuring radioactivity are based on this process. The number of electrical impulses thus generated is a measure of the radioactivity of the measured sample. Another principle is based on the generation of tiny flashes of light in special materials (“scintillators”), which can be amplified and also counted. Depending on the radionuclide of interest, one method or, for quality control, several methods can be used to measure radioactivity.
How does IAF carry out indoor and workplace radon measurements?
There are several ways to measure radon: long-term and short-term measurements. In the following, we briefly explain the difference between the radon measurement methods.
- One way to measure radon is by placing a device indoors, e.g., in a workplace, for a long period of time (typically 12 months). This method uses detectors which contain a radiation-sensitive film in a plastic can, the size of a small film canister. The radiation resulting from the radioactive decay of radon leaves microscopic traces on the film, which can be made visible and evaluated after the end of the measuring time. The more traces on the film, the higher was the radon concentration in the air. Although this radon measurement method only provides information about the average radon concentration in the air over the entire duration of the radon measurement, it is well suited for a simple and inexpensive check of compliance with the legal reference value of 300 becquerels per cubic meter of air.
- Alternatively, there is time-resolved radon measurement using electronic radon monitors. For example, the radon concentration (and possibly other parameters e.g., the concentration of the radon decay products) can be recorded for each hour over a period of a few days or weeks. This method of radon measurement is much better suited for a realistic assessment of the exposure of residents or workers: high radon concentrations are often measured when a room is locked and therefore unused, and vice versa. In addition, important information on radon dynamics in a building and thus on suitable radon protection measures can be derived from time-correlated radon measurements in several rooms.
At IAF, we use these radon measuring methods depending on customer and legal requirements. We not only advise our clients before the radon measurement, but also explain the results of the radon measurement and help to find suitable measures to reduce the radon concentration where this is necessary.
How can IAF help with radioactive contaminated sites and orphan sources?
Put simply, under German regulations one speaks of a radioactively contaminated site if contamination of land, buildings or water may lead to an annual effective dose of more than 1 millisievert. IAF works off all steps required by current regulations, from radiological site characterisation (type, level and spatial extension of the contamination), to exposure and dose assessment and, finally, development of remedial measures, long-term monitoring and institutional control.
IAF are also a sought-after partner in the investigation of chance finds of radioactive materials (orphan sources), for example in waste incineration plants and in scrap metal recycling facilities. We are on the spot within a very short time and provide the facility operators with field sampling and measurement technology, professional advice, and many years of experience to safely handle the situation.
How does the determination of biogenic carbon work with the measurement of C-14?
The determination of the content of biogenic carbon has come to play an increasing role in emission trading and in the labelling of “sustainable products”. Carbon isotopes with a radioactive nucleus of mass number 14 (C-14) are continuously formed in the atmosphere by cosmic radiation (since the middle of the 20th century it has also been released into the atmosphere by nuclear weapon tests) and are subsequently incorporated into plant tissue. For example, in “young” wood, among one trillion of ordinary carbon atoms of mass number 12 there is approximately one carbon atom with a radioactive C-14 nucleus. We can determine this small proportion of C-14 isotopes very precisely using liquid scintillation counting (LSC).
However, the carbon isotope C-14 is subject to radioactive decay with a half-life of approximately 5,730 years and therefore, it is not detectable in fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum with an age of several million of years. If fossil coal or crude oil are burned, we cannot measure any C-14 in the resulting carbon dioxide anymore.
If, on the other hand, “young” (i.e., renewable) carbon sources are burnt in power plants, such as sewage gas, sewage sludge or wood pellets, the C-14 nuclei have not yet decayed and we can detect them in their natural ratio among all carbon nuclei. In emission trading, this information helps operators to secure carbon credits.
The proportion of C-14 nuclei in total carbon is conventionally given in units of pMC (“percent modern carbon”). By definition, 100 pMC correspond to the C-14 content in the atmosphere back in 1950. When determining biogenic carbon using the C-14 method, we work in line with the standards DIN EN ISO 21644 (solid secondary fuels, formerly DIN EN 15440), DIN EN 16640, EN 16785-1 (bio-based products), DIN EN ISO 13833 (CO2 emissions from biomass), ISO 16620 (Plastics - Biobased content), and ASTM D6866.
What information can be obtained from measuring tritium in groundwater and surface water?
Tritium (H-3), a hydrogen isotope, is naturally produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic radiation (tritium is also released into the atmosphere through nuclear weapon experiments). Since tritium behaves chemically in almost exactly the same way as normal hydrogen, it takes part in the earth’s water cycle, and with rainwater it eventually ends up in rivers and groundwater aquifers.
The activity concentration of tritium is usually given in "tritium units" (TU), which is approximately 0.12 Bq/l. In surface water we typically see activity concentrations of a few tens of TU.
However, tritium decays with a half-life of approximately 12 years. Therefore, tritium can no longer be detected in very old groundwater resources that have not been replenished by tritium-rich precipitation for a very long time. This makes the absence of tritium a suitable, easy-to-measure indicator of how well groundwater is protected from pollutants from the biosphere, industrial and agricultural sources (e.g., pesticides, fertilizers).
Due to its high chemical similarity to "simple" hydrogen, tritium can also be used as an ideal tracer in surface waters to study the dispersion of substances, for example in river systems.
At IAF, we measure tritium using liquid scintillation (LSC). If low detection limits are required, e.g., when determining the age of groundwater or to meet other special requirements, LSC counting is preceded by electrolytic enrichment.
What consulting services does IAF provide?
First and foremost, we help our customers understand the radionuclide analysis test reports, explain the meaning of the results, and to put them in perspective. This may involve questions by customers about the need for monitoring of radioactive residues or the free-release of decommissioning waste from nuclear facilities, or the interpretation of test results of radioactivity in drinking or mineral water. For production processes involving NORM, we use the analytical results to establish radionuclide balances and quantitatively understand the pathways of relevant radionuclides from raw material to end product or resulting waste streams.
At workplaces with increased natural radioactivity as defined by the German Radiation Protection Act (2017) we are government-certified consultants to assess the occupational exposure. We support our customers in clearing NORM wastes from regulatory control in line with the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (2018). You can find more about our range of services under Consulting.
As independent advisors, we help regulatory authorities develop and implement regulations and guidelines. For example, on behalf of Thuringian environment protection authority, IAF was involved in determining radon-affected areas in the Free State of Thuringia. This activity also included the development of a information and radon awareness campaign for the general public.
IAF supports clients with public communications and awareness campaigns on radioactivity and radon. For example, we helped the environmental authorities of the Land of Baden-Württemberg develop and implement the radon information campaign “Von Grund auf sicher” (“Safe from the ground up.”). You can find out more about our experience in this field under Public awareness and information campaigns.
IAF are involved in the development of recommendations, regulations and ground-breaking studies on topical issues such as the measurement and evaluation of natural and artificial radionuclides. For example, we have been instrumental in preparing the guidelines for the determination of radioactivity in drinking water in Germany, or in a large-scale survey of radioactive discharges from NORM industries and the resulting exposure of members of the public.
As independent consultants with decades of international experience, we help authorities and governments in many countries with the conceptualising and practical writing of ordinances, regulations and guidance documents in the field of radiation protection, and with the development of radiochemical methods, for example in Ukraine, Mongolia, Mozambique, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, to name but a few recent examples.
IAF experts are frequently involved as independent consultants for due diligence studies and environmental reports, especially in the field of radioactivity and radiation safety of NORM waste treatment and disposal facilities. Our clients include renowned law firms and consulting houses, and international organisations such as the IAEA.
For many practical applications, we use computer models such as the Lagrange-based ARTM software to forecast atmospheric dispersion of radioactive gases, dust and aerosols and estimate the resulting doses.
We are also experts in working with ISOCS/LabSOCS of Canberra-Mirion and MCNP of Los Alamos National Laboratory to model radiation fields in the context of in-situ gamma spectrometry for NORM residues and radioactive waste.
What research and development projects are IAF involved in?
IAF continuously pursue a research and development agenda. We believe that we can only offer our customers an ever-widening scope of continuously improved services, if we leave trodden paths, relentlessly sharpen our analytical methods and develop the qualification of our employees. Here are some examples:
- Development of a drone-based gamma spectrometry system for uranium mining and legacy sites in Central Asia. This technology can also be used to characterize radioactive contamination in other locations that are very large and/or difficult to access. (DUB-GEM project, funded by the BMBF CLIENT II programme, project partners: BGR, 3EA).
- IAF and TROPOS are jointly investigating the relationship between radon, attached and unattached radon progeny, and aerosols at workplaces (client: Federal Office for Radiation Protection).
- Together with Brenk Systemplanung and Lohmeyer, IAF is investigating the formation of fugitive dust at NORM stockpiles, and evaluating associated radiological impacts, using the ARTM atmospheric radionuclide transport model (client: Federal Office for Radiation Protection).
- Sampling of suspended particulates and development of simple, robust radiochemical methods for the determination of natural radionuclides from uranium mining and legacy sites in transboundary river systems between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan (TRANSPOND project, funded by the BMBF CLIENT II programme, project partners: WISUTEC, HS Magdeburg-Stendal, 2018-2021).
- In several research projects, IAF are currently working with partners, e.g., with IFU Frankenberg on the effect of cold airstreams on radon transport at mine dumps, and HTWK Leipzig, DBI Freiberg on the mitigation of convective radon transport in waste rock dumps, to name a few.
To which national and international professional organisations does IAF or its staff actively contribute?
IAF are a founding member of the European NORM Association (ENA). ENA emerged from the European ALARA Network for NORM (EAN_NORM), which was initiated by IAF in 1996.
IAF are an active member of the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association and in particular in the Working Group on Natural Radioactivity (AKNAT).
IAF personnel serve as members of special committees at professional associations, e.g., the Committee on "Radioactivity in building products" of the German Institute for Building Technology (DIBt) or the “Commission on radioactive substances and water" of the German Association of Gas and Water (DVGW).
For many years, IAF have been working closely with international organisations, in particular with CGULS - Coordination Group for Uranium Legacy Sites of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). IAF employees have been involved in the preparation of best practice guidance documents, such as the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series NW-T-3.6 "Lessons Learned from Environmental Remediation Programs" or NW-T-3.8 "Developing Cost Estimates for Environmental Remediation Projects".
Further information can be found under International.
Does IAF also provide training?
Yes, we do. IAF staff are involved in many national and international projects that include an extensive training components. Examples include, but are not limited to, the following:
- Transport safety of radioactive materials under ADR Class 7 (Training center of the police of North Rhine-Westphalia).
- Radiation safety and awareness training for workers at environmental remediation projects of uranium legacy sites in Shekaftar / Min-Kush (Kyrgyzstan), and Yangiabad / Charkesar (Uzbekistan), on behalf of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD).
- Radiation safety and environmental impact assessment of uranium production facilities, NORM facilities, and assessment of radon exposure (Client: Nuclear Energy Commission of Mongolia).
- Technical trainings for NGOs in the field of stakeholder involvement at uranium legacy sites in Central Asia (clients: UNDP, OSCE, IAEA).
IAF is also an official industry partner of the Saxon University of Cooperative Education (BA Riesa) for the Laboratory and Process Engineering / Radiation Technology curriculum. In a unique combination of several weeks of practical training at IAF and another few weeks of theoretical training at BA Riesa, we are shaping our future staff members. For more information, see Jobs.